Bradley Manning: I want to live as a woman –




Bradley Manning, the Army private sentenced to military prison for leaking classified documents, revealed he intends to live out the remainder of his life as a woman.

I am Chelsea Manning. I am female, the Army private wrote in a statement read on TODAY Thursday. Given the way that I feel, and have felt since childhood, I want to begin hormone therapy as soon as possible. I hope that you will support me in this transition.

Manning, 25, was sentenced to 35 years in prison on Wednesday after having been found guilty of 20 charges ranging from espionage to theft for leaking more than 700,000 documents to the WikiLeaks website while working in Iraq in 2010.

Read Manning’s full statement

I also request that, starting today, you refer to me by my new name and use the feminine pronoun (except in official mail to the confinement facility), Manning continued in the statement. I look forward to receiving letters from supporters and having the opportunity to write back.

Manning signed the letter Chelsea E. Manning.

During his trial, Mannings defense team suggested his struggles with gender identity as a gay soldier were a factor in his decision to leak. His attorneys presented an email to a former supervisor from April 2010 in which he said he was transgender and joined the Army to get rid of it. The email, which had the subject line My Problem, also included a photo of Manning in which he is wearing a blonde wig and lipstick. During Mannings nine-month detainment at the Marine Corps brig in Quantico, Va., following his arrest in 2010, he sent two letters to his counselor using the name Breanna, Master Sgt. Craig Blenis testified at his trial.

Burning Questions: Can you begin a gender change in an Army prison?

“The stress that he was under was mostly to give context to what was going on at the time,” Manning’s lawyer, David Coombs, told Savannah Guthrie on TODAY Thursday. “It was never an excuse because that’s not what drove his actions. What drove his actions was a strong moral compass.”

Manning will likely serve the sentence at Fort Leavenworth, the only military prison for service members sentenced to 10 or more years, a Military District of Washington spokesperson told The Associated Press.

Coombs said he is “hoping” that Fort Leavenworth “would do the right thing” and provide hormone therapy for Manning. “If Fort Leavenworth does not, then I’m going to do everything in my power to make sure they are forced to do so.”

The Army responded to Manning’s decision to seek hormone therapy with a statement.

“Inmates at the United States Disciplinary Barracks and Joint Regional Correctional Facility are treated equally regardless of race, rank, ethnicity or sexual orientation,” the statement reads. “All inmates are considered soldiers and are treated as such with access to mental health professionals, including a psychiatrist, psychologist, social workers and behavioral science noncommissioned officers with experience in addressing the needs of military personnel in pre- and post-trial confinement.

“The Army does not provide hormone therapy or sex-reassignment surgery for gender identity disorder. The USDB has implemented risk assessment protocols and safety procedures to address high risk factors identified with the Prison Rape Elimination Act.”

In the U.S. prison system, transgender prisoners who have not had genital surgery are generally assigned to live with their birth-sex peers, but the military policy is unclear.

The Army private’s statement, provided to TODAY exclusively, signed “Chelsea E. Manning.”

On whether Manning will seek sexual reassignment surgery, Coombs said “I haven’t really discussed that aspect with her. Really, it’s more about getting the hormone therapy, so at this point I don’t know the answer to that.”

Coombs told Guthrie that he expects Manning “to be out” on parole in seven years. “But I actually expect him to get pardoned,” Coombs continued. “At least that’s what my hope is, that the president will in fact pardon him.”

Coombs said he doesn’t fear for Manning’s safety in prison, and that Manning will not ask to live in a female prison. “Everyone that’s in a military prison is a first-time offender. These are soldiers who have done something wrong, have gone to prison and are really just trying to do their time and then get out.”

In the statement read on TODAY, Manning thanked her supporters. I want to thank everybody who has supported me over the last three years. Throughout this long ordeal, your letters of support and encouragement have helped keep me strong. I am forever indebted to those who wrote to me, made a donation to my defense fund, or came to watch a portion of the trial. I would especially like to thank Courage to Resist and the Bradley Manning Support Network for their tireless efforts in raising awareness for my case and providing for my legal representation.

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Bradley Manning: I want to live as a woman –

Chelsea Manning reveals the real reason Bradley Manning joined the military –

Chelsea Manning, the transgender U.S. Army soldier formerly known as Pvt. Bradley Manning, spoke out about the reason shedecided to join the military in the first place but it didnt have much to do withserving thecountry.

Manning was found guilty in 2013 on charges of leaking hundreds of thousands of classified, sensitive government documents to WikiLeaks during a tour in Iraq. The day after a military court sentences Manning to 35 years in prison, she announced that she was transgender.

Manning became the first known soldierto undergo hormone treatment therapy while incarcerated. Shortly before leaving office, former President Barack Obama commuted Mannings sentence,and she was released in May 2017 after serving approximately sevenyears of a35-year sentence.

Manning, in an op-ed for Yahoo!, said that transgenderism and an ongoingbattle with sexuality were catalysts forenlisting inthe Army.

The former U.S. military analyst admitted in the Yahoo!op-ed that enrolling in the Army was all about provinga point to herself and to other people.

By the time I enrolled in the military at 20, I had spent years in denial about who I really was, Manning wrote. I was openly gay and would go through periods of cross-dressing, and had even thought about transitioning, but I was in such complete denial.

To overcompensate and because I was constantly being reminded of how inadequate I was as a male I enrolled in the military, Manningcontinued. My thought was, I must enlist and man up.’

Manning explained that the worst thing about being a pre-transition individualin the Army was young male soldiersrhetoric.

The one place I never felt at all comfortable in the military was in private circles of conversation. Theres a tendency, especially among young men, to objectify and denigrate women behind closed doors. Theyd say ridiculous, raunchy things about women call them sluts and whores, basically just treat them like objects. It was a line I just couldnt cross. Id try to avoid those kinds of macho conversations, because thats inevitably what would come up. Id get very, very distant.

Manning wrotethat she likelywould have been more successfulin her role as a U.S. military analyst if shed had the freedom to be out and argued againstthe notion that, if she hadnt been a trans soldier, the WikiLeaks incident would not have occurred.

I loved my job and I took my military career very seriously. Theres this idea out there that, had I not been trans, the leaks and stuff would never have happened. But to my mind those are two completely separate things. Had I been out, I think I still would have been attracted to the military, but I would have been more comfortable and gotten along with people better. Being closeted often put me in situations where I couldnt concentrate or even think straight.

Mannings comments on transgenderism in the militarycame just weeks after President Donald Trump proposed a ban ontransgenders serving in the U.S. military.

Trump saidin July, After consultation with my Generals and military experts, please be advised that the United States Government will not accept or allow Transgender individuals to serve in any capacity in the U.S. Military. Our military must be focused on decisive and overwhelming victory and cannot be burdened with the tremendous medical costs and disruption that transgender in the military would entail. Thank you.

Trumps move to ban transgender individuals in the military came on the heels of military leaders exploring options to delay the enlistment of transgender individuals to further assess behaviors and liabilities.

Then House Democrats signed a letter to the office of Secretary of Defense James Mattis, telling the Pentagon not to comply with Trumps ban on transgenders serving in the U.S. military.

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Chelsea Manning reveals the real reason Bradley Manning joined the military –

AZ Rep. Trent Franks Praises Trump’s Pardon of Joe Arpaio – Breitbart News

AP Photo/Ross D. Franklin

by Ken Klukowski26 Aug 2017Washington, DC0

Arpaio was held in contempt of court by a federal judge for continuing his policy of enforcing immigration laws against illegal aliens. When Arpaio was sued for allegedly violating civil rights, a federal judge whose family member was representing the side suing Arpaioa conflict of interest that under federal law requires the judge to recuse himselfordered Arpaio to cease his law enforcement efforts.

When the judge later decided Arpaio was not fully complying with that order, he held Arpaio in contempt of court and referred the matter to the Obama-Lynch Justice Department for criminal prosecution. Judge Susan Boltonwho was appointed by President Barack Obamaconvicted Arpaio without a jury on July 31 of this year.

Although Arpaio is 85 years old and his wife is gravely ill, federal prosecutors from the Obama administration sought six months behind bars for the sheriff. If prosecutors had requested a single day more than six months of jail time, then the Sixth Amendment of the Constitutions Bill of Rights would have entitled Arpaio to a jury trial.

But by asking for only six months of jail time, Arpaio was denied the right for his fate to be decided by twelve Arizonans, who it is widely believed would likely have acquitted him. Instead, the aged lawmans fate was decided by a district judge, and so Arpaio faced the threat of being locked up behind bars alongside hundreds of criminals who were locked up by him.

Article II of the Constitution gives every president authority to grant pardons, commutations, and other reprieves for federal crimes. The power is unlimited, with the sole exception that a president cannot pardon a federal officer who is impeached and removed from office by Congress.

The White House statement accompanying the pardon declared of Arpaio, After more than fifty years of admirable service to our Nation, he is a worthy candidate for a Presidential pardon.

Commending President Trump for granting the pardon, Franks contrasted it to Obamas commuting the prison sentence of Bradley Manning, the transgender Army soldier convicted of one of the worst leaks of classified information in American history, giving those documents to Wikileaks for worldwide disclosure.

While no one can dispute Manning acted to undermine our countrys national security, Joe Arpaio has spent a lifetime trying to maintain it, Franks, a longtime Republican favorite of Christians and conservatives, said in his statement. Comparing the two, it is easy to discern that Arpaio is a patriot, while Manning is a traitor.

Arpaio is the victim of political assassination and a partisan prosecution, Franks concluded. It is right and just for him and his ailing wife to receive the peace of an honorable retirement.

Ken Klukowski is senior legal editor for Breitbart News. Follow him on Twitter @kenklukowski.

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AZ Rep. Trent Franks Praises Trump’s Pardon of Joe Arpaio – Breitbart News

4D quantum encryption successful in first real-world test – New Atlas – New Atlas

Using quantum encryption to secure messages could make for much less hackable communication networks. The technique has been tested in the lab, but for it to really take off as a practical system it needs to work out in the real world, among other signals and natural air turbulence. Now, researchers from the University of Ottawa have successfully sent a message with high-dimensional quantum encryption between two building rooftops.

Quantum communication, at its most basic level, usually encodes information in a binary system: individual photons are sent between two points, with each representing one bit of information, either a one or a zero. But a technique called high-dimensional quantum encryption can theoretically squeeze twice the data into each photon, in turn allowing exponentially more information to be transmitted. Two bits of information per photon opens up four signal possibilities 00, 01, 10 and 11 giving it the title of 4D quantum encryption.

Not only can this technique fit more information into each particle, it’s also more secure against deliberate attempts to intercept the message, as well as environmental factors like air turbulence and electronic interference. To keep out any prying eyes, this information can be encrypted with quantum key distribution, which uses the quantum states of light to encode a message and tell the receiving device how to decrypt it.

But outside of a lab, the real world is a noisy place, full of buildings, turbulent air and electronics. Before 4D quantum encryption can reach its potential, it needs to be tested in the kinds of environments it may eventually be used in. Since there’s so much noise on the ground, sending a signal across a distance of 3 km (1.9 miles) horizontally is equivalent to the much greater distance of beaming a message through the relatively-clear air between the ground and a satellite in orbit.

The 3-km horizontal test is the next step, but for this proof of concept, the University of Ottawa researchers set about performing a 300 m (985 ft) test run between two rooftops in a city. They set up the lab equipment on the roof of each building, protected from the worst of the weather in wooden boxes.

The test was successful. Messages secured with 4D quantum encryption were beamed between the two stations, with an error rate of 11 percent well below the threshold to make it a secure connection. Accounting for the error correction and turbulence, the system was able to transfer 1.6 times more data per photon than 2D encryption.

“Our work is the first to send messages in a secure manner using high-dimensional quantum encryption in realistic city conditions, including turbulence,” says Ebrahim Karimi, lead researcher on the study. “The secure, free-space communication scheme we demonstrated could potentially link Earth with satellites, securely connect places where it is too expensive to install fiber, or be used for encrypted communication with a moving object, such as an airplane.”

The researchers say the next step is to test the system across three points, placed 5.6 km (3.5 mi) apart, using adaptive optics to try to counteract the turbulence. Longer-term, the plan is to add more links and more encryption dimensions to the system.

The research was published in the journal Optica.

Source: The Optical Society

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4D quantum encryption successful in first real-world test – New Atlas – New Atlas

Privacy is your right! Here’s everything about encrypted WhatsApp messages, Apple devices and emails – Economic Times

Now that we can agree that privacy is a right and not a feature, there’s no reason for anyone to be snooping on your emails and phone conversations. You probably don’t have anything to hide, but your privacy still needs to be respected. If you’re in the least bit concerned, read on.

Messaging & Calls

WHATSAPP is encrypted end-to-end this means that no one, not even Whatsapp, has access to what you send. What you probably didn’t know is that Whatsapp servers don’t store messages at all and even voice/video calls are encrypted with the same uncrackable technology. If Whatsapp is too populous for your taste, you can always use Signal by Open Whisper Systems. They’re quite similar because you can use Signal for text, audio, video, sending files, group conversations, voice calls and video calls. In fact, Whatsapp uses the Signal protocol for end-to-end encryption.

APPLE users should know that iMessage and FaceTime are also end-to-end encrypted. Needless to say, this only works within the Apple ecosystem, so you have to be chatting or video calling with someone who has an Apple device.

WICKR normally makes enterprise class communication products but they also have Wickr Me a free, private messenger for personal communications. It is end-to-end encrypted and has default ephemerality (all messages are fleeting, get deleted on being read). It also allows you to send photos, videos and files up to 10MB in size. For larger files and secure chat rooms, you can explore some of the paid plans.

Your privacy needs to be respected (Image: Thinkstock)


PROTONMAIL is top of mind for most when it comes to secure email – you can use the web client or even the mobile apps for free. All emails are secured and anonymous (no personal info is needed to create an account). Basic accounts (500MB storage, 150 emails per day) are free and you can upgrade to remove these restrictions.

MAILFENCE is not as popular as ProtonMail but it also offers a free secure email account with up to 200MB total storage, 250MB documents, two-factor authentication and digital signatures. There’s no spam, no trackers, no ads and no access for govt surveillance.

TUTANOTA gives you 1GB of space for email with some restrictions (no aliases, no customisation). It automatically encrypts all data including email and contacts. You can access it on any device using a web browser or get the apps for Android and iOS.

Cloud Storage

BOXCRYPTOR can be used to encrypt your files with any of the cloud storage providers like Dropbox, Google or OneDrive. It’s free for personal use the catch is that you can only use it with one cloud provider and two devices. There are paid plans available if you need to remove these restrictions.

TRESORIT provides end-to-end encryption of your files. It includes 1,000GB of encrypted storage and you can access them from up to 10 devices all platforms are supported. If you need to send a file to anyone, you can send an encrypted link and access can be revoked anytime. You can try it free for 14 days after which it is US$12.50 a month (or US$10.42 a month, if billed annually).

SPIDEROAK is a cloud storage provider that encrypts data but also protects it in case of accidental loss (backup and sync of data is available for Windows, Mac, iOS and Android). You can create temporary, self-destructing links if you need to share any data from your personal cloud. Plans start at US$5 a month for 100GB storage and there are options for 250GB (US$9/month), 1,000GB (US$12/month) and 5TB (US$25/month).

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Privacy is your right! Here’s everything about encrypted WhatsApp messages, Apple devices and emails – Economic Times

The ABCs of ciphertext exploits and other cryptography attacks – TechTarget

The following is an excerpt from the Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, fourth edition, edited by Adam Gordon,…

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CISSP-ISSAP, ISSMP, SSCP. This section from Domain 3 offers a comprehensive overview of the various methods attackers use to crack ciphertext and otherwise exploit cryptography systems.

Todays cryptography is far more advanced than the cryptosystems of yesterday. Organizations are able to both encrypt and break ciphers that could not even have been imagined before human civilization had the power of computers. Today’s cryptosystems operate in a manner so that anyone with a computer can use cryptography without even understanding cryptographic operations, algorithms and advanced mathematics. However, it is still important to implement a cryptosystem in a secure manner. Any security system or product is subject to compromise or attack. The following explains common attacks against cryptography systems.

The ciphertext-only attack is one of the most difficult because the attacker has so little information to start with. All the attacker starts with is some unintelligible data that he suspects may be an important encrypted message. The attack becomes simpler when the attacker is able to gather several pieces of ciphertext and thereby look for trends or statistical data that would help in the attack. Adequate encryption is defined as encryption that is strong enough to make brute force attacks impractical because there is a higher work factor than the attacker wants to invest into the attack. Moores law states that available computing power doubles every 18 months. Experts suggest this advance may be slowing; however, encryption strength considered adequate today will probably not be sufficient a few years from now due to advances in CPU and CPU technologies and new attack techniques. Security professionals should consider this when defining encryption requirements.

For a known plaintext attack, the attacker has access to both the ciphertext and the plaintext versions of the same message. The goal of this type of attack is to find the link — the cryptographic key that was used to encrypt the message. Once the key has been found, the attacker would then be able to decrypt all messages that had been encrypted using that key. In some cases, the attacker may not have an exact copy of the message; if the message was known to be an e-commerce transaction, the attacker knows the format of such transactions even though he does not know the actual values in the transaction.

To execute the chosen attacks, the attacker knows the algorithm used for the encrypting, or even better, he may have access to the machine used to do the encryption and is trying to determine the key. This may happen if a workstation used for encrypting messages is left unattended. Now the attacker can run chosen pieces of plaintext through the algorithm and see what the result is. This may assist in a known plaintext attack. An adaptive chosen plaintext attack is where the attacker can modify the chosen input files to see what effect that would have on the resulting ciphertext.

This is similar to the chosen plaintext attack in that the attacker has access to the decryption device or software and is attempting to defeat the cryptographic protection by decrypting chosen pieces of ciphertext to discover the key. An adaptive chosen ciphertext would be the same, except that the attacker can modify the ciphertext prior to putting it through the algorithm. Asymmetric cryptosystems are vulnerable to chosen ciphertext attacks. For example, the RSA algorithm is vulnerable to this type of attack. The attacker would select a section of plaintext, encrypt it with the victims public key, then decrypt the ciphertext to get the plaintext back. Although this does not yield any new information to the attacker, the attacker can exploit properties of RSA by selecting blocks of data, when processed using the victims private key, yields information that can he used in cryptanalysis. The weakness with asymmetric encryption in chosen ciphertext attacks can be mitigated by including a random padding in the plaintext before encrypting the data. Security vendor RSA Security recommends modifying the plaintext by using a process called optimal asymmetric encryption padding (OAEP). RSA encryption with OAEP is defined in PKCS #1 v2.1.

Also called a side-channel attack, this more complex attack is executed by measuring the exact execution times and power required by the crypto device to perform the encryption or decryption. By measuring this, it is possible to determine the value of the key and the algorithm used.

This is a known plaintext attack that uses linear approximations to describe the behavior of the block cipher. Linear cryptanalysis is a known plaintext attack and uses a linear approximation to describe the behavior of the block cipher. Given sufficient pairs of plaintext and corresponding ciphertext, one can obtain bits of information about the key, and increased amounts of data will usually give a higher probability of success. There have been a variety of enhancements and improvements to the basic attack. For example, there is an attack called differential — linear cryptanalysis, which combines elements of differential cryptanalysis with those of linear cryptanalysis.

Implementation attacks are some of the most common and popular attacks against cryptographic systems due to their ease and reliance on system elements outside of the algorithm. The main types of implementation attacks include:

Side-channel attacks are passive attacks that rely on a physical attribute of the implementation such as power consumption/emanation. These attributes are studied to determine the secret key and the algorithm function. Some examples of popular side channels include timing analysis and electromagnetic differential analysis.

Fault analysis attempts to force the system into an error state to gain erroneous results. By forcing an error, gaining the results and comparing it with known good results, an attacker may learn about the secret key and the algorithm.

Probing attacks attempt to watch the circuitry surrounding the cryptographic module in hopes that the complementary components will disclose information about the key or the algorithm. Additionally, new hardware may be added to the cryptographic module to observe and inject information.

This attack is meant to disrupt and damage processing by the attacker, through the resending of repeated files to the host. If there are no checks such as time-stamping, use of one-time tokens or sequence verification codes in the receiving software, the system might process duplicate files.

Algebraic attacks are a class of techniques that rely for their success on block ciphers exhibiting a high degree of mathematical structure. For instance, it is conceivable that a block cipher might exhibit a group structure. If this were the case, it would then mean that encrypting a plaintext under one key and then encrypting the result under another key would always be equivalent to single encryption under some other single key. If so, then the block cipher would be considerably weaker, and tile use of multiple encryption cycles would offer no additional security over single encryption.

Hash functions map plaintext into a hash. Because the hash function is a one-way process, one should not be able to determine the plaintext from the hash itself. To determine a given plaintext from its hash, refer to these two ways to do that:

1. Hash each plaintext until matching hash is found; or

2. Hash each plaintext, but store each generated hash in a table that can used as a look up table so hashes do not need to be generated again. A rainbow table is a lookup table of sorted hash outputs. The idea here is that storing precomputed hash values in a rainbow table that one can later refer to saves time and computer resources when attempting to decipher tile plaintext from its hash value.

This attack works closely with several other types of attacks. It is especially useful when attacking a substitution cipher where the statistics of the plaintext language are known. In English, for example, some letters will appear more often than others will, allowing an attacker to assume that those letters may represent an E or S.

Because a hash is a short representation of a message, given enough time and resources, another message would give the same hash value. However, hashing algorithms have been developed with this in mind so that they can resist a simple birthday attack. The point of the birthday attack is that it is easier to find two messages that hash to the same message digest than to match a specific message and its specific message digest. The usual countermeasure is to use a hash algorithm with twice the message digest length as the desired work factor (e.g., use 160-bit SHA-1 to have it resistant to 280 work factor).

This is the most common type of attack and usually the most successful. All cryptography relies to some extent on humans to implement and operate. Unfortunately, this is one of the greatest vulnerabilities and has led to some of the greatest compromises of a nations or organizations secrets or intellectual property. Through coercion, bribery or befriending people in positions of responsibility, spies or competitors are able to gain access to systems without having any technical expertise.

The dictionary attack is used most commonly against password files. It exploits the poor habits of users who choose simple passwords based on natural words. The dictionary attack merely encrypts all of the words in a dictionary and then checks whether the resulting hash matches an encrypted password stored in the SAM file or other password file.

Brute force is trying all possible keys until one is found that decrypts the ciphertext. This is why key length is such an important factor in determining the strength of a cryptosystem. With DES only having a 56-bit key, in time the attackers were able to discover the key and decrypt a DES message. This is also why SHA-256 is considered stronger than MD5; because the output hash is longer and, therefore, more resistant to a brute force attack. Graphical Processor Units (GPU) have revolutionized brute force hacking methods. Where a standard CPU might take 48 hours to crack an eight character mixed password, a modern GPU can crack it in less than 10 minutes. CPUs have a large number of arithmetic/logic units and are designed to perform repetitive tasks continuously. These characteristics make them ideal for performing brute force attack processes. Due to the introduction of CPU-based brute force attacks, many security professionals are evaluating password length, complexity and multifactor considerations.

This attack is one of the most common. A competing firm buys a crypto product from another firm and then tries to reverse engineer the product. Through reverse engineering, it may be able to find weaknesses in the system or gain crucial information about the operations of the algorithm.

This attack was successful against the SSL installed in Netscape several years ago. Because the random number generator was too predictable; it gave the attackers the ability to guess the random numbers so critical in setting up initialization vectors or a nonce. With this information in hand, the attacker is much more likely to run a successful attack.

Most cryptosystems will use temporary files to perform their calculations. If these files are not deleted and overwritten, they may be compromised and lead an attacker to the message in plaintext.

Encryption 101: DES explained

Understand the differences between symmetric and asymmetric encryption

Implement identity management systems for cybersecurity readiness.

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The ABCs of ciphertext exploits and other cryptography attacks – TechTarget

qBitcoin: A Way of Making Bitcoin Quantum-Computer Proof? – IEEE Spectrum

A new quantum cryptography-based Bitcoin standard has been proposed that could harden the popular cryptocurrency against the advent of full-fledged quantum computers. Bitcoin as it now exists involves traditional public key cryptography and thus could conceivably be hacked by a future quantum computer strong enough to break it. However, quantum cryptography, which is based not on difficult math problems but the fundamental laws of physics, is expected to be strong enough to withstand even quantum computer-powered attacks.

The proposal, dubbed qBitcoin, posits transmission of quantum cryptographic keys between a remitter and a receiver of the eponomous named cryptocurrency, qBitcoin. The system would use provably secure protocols such as theBB84quantum key distribution scheme.

To exchange qBitcoin, then, requires that there be a transmission network in place that can send and receive bits of quantum information, qubits. And that is no mean feat, considering it typically involves preserving the polarization states of individual photons across thousands of kilometers. To date, there are five knownquantum key distributionnetworks in the United States, Switzerland, Austria, and Japan. China is working ontheir ownmassive 2000-km link, as well. And a number of satellite-to-satellite and satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution networks are alsobeingdevelopedandprototyped.

Which is to say that qBitcoin or something like it could not be scaled up today. But if the quantum computer singularity is approaching, in which a powerful enough machinecould threaten existing cryptography standards, quantum cryptography would be an essential ingredient of the post-Y2Q age. So existing quantum key distribution networks might at least serve as outposts in a burgeoning global quantum network, like Western Union stations in the early days of the telegraph.

Some things about qBitcoin might appear the same to any Bitcoin user today. Bitcoin is a peer to peer system, and qBitcoin is also peer to peer, says Kazuki Ikeda, qBitcoins creator and PhD student in physics at Osaka University in Japan.Hesays compared to Bitcoin, qBitcoin would offer comparable or perhaps enhanced levels of privacy, anonymity, and security. (That said, his paper that makes this claim is still under peer review.)

However, the lucrative profession ofBitcoin mining, under Ikedas protocol, would be very different than what it is today. Transactions would still need to be verified and secured. Butinstead of todays system of acryptographic puzzles, qBitcoins security would rely on a 2001proposalfor creating aquantum digital signature.Such a signature would rely on the laws of quantum physics to secure the qBitcoin ledger from tampering or hacking.

Ikeda’s proposal is certainly not the first to suggest a quantum-cryptographic improvement onclassical-cryptography-based digital currencies. Other proposals in2010,2016,and evenearlier this yearhave also offered up variations on the theme. All work to mitigate against the danger large-scale quantum computers would represent to Bitcoin.

Of course, not every solution to the quantum singularity is as promising as every other. A person going by the handle amluto criticized Ikedas qBitcoin proposal onaprominent message boardlast week. (amluto claimed to be author of one of aprevious quantum currency proposalsfrom 2010presumably the 2010 proposals co-author Andrew Lutomirski, althoughIEEE Spectrumwas unable to confirm this supposition at press time.)

This is nonsense It’s like saying that you can transmit a file by mailing a USB stick, which absolutely guarantees that you, the sender, no longer have the original file. That’s wrongall that mailing a USB stick guarantees is that you don’t have the USB stick any more, not that you didn’t keep a copy of the contents. Similarly, quantum teleportation eats the input state but says nothing about any other copies of the input state that may exist.

Ikeda says he disagrees with the analogy. The point, he says, is that there are no other copies of the input state as it’s called abovein other words of the quantum keys that secure qBitcoin. So, Ikeda says, qBitcoin is safe just like Bitcoin is safe today.

But one day, thanks to quantum computers, Bitcoin, will no longer be safe. Someone will needto save it. And, no matter who devises the winning protocol, the thing that threatens Bitcoinmay in fact also be the thing that comes to its rescue: The cagey qubit.

IEEE Spectrums general technology blog, featuring news, analysis, and opinions about engineering, consumer electronics, and technology and society, from the editorial staff and freelance contributors.

Sign up for the Tech Alert newsletter and receive ground-breaking technology and science news from IEEE Spectrum every Thursday.

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Sovrin joins Hyperledger Indy to build a permissioned open ledger for identity management 2May

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qBitcoin: A Way of Making Bitcoin Quantum-Computer Proof? – IEEE Spectrum

Genome cryptography is the new way to secure your DNA data – Gears Of Biz

DNA security and privacy is a looming problem that scientists and researchers are only just starting to grapple with. A team at Stanford has now developed a technique that can cloak irrelevant genomic information, allowing scientists to access key disease-related mutations without revealing an individuals broader genome sequence.

In a world where everything from dating profiles to medical diagnoses are drawing on DNA data, were currently just forced to hope that each company with access to our DNA is acting responsibly with out genetic fingerprints. But for many, hope is not enough, and nor should it be. With genomic information becoming increasingly of value, a demand has arisen for a way to secure that data while still being able to enjoy the benefits of DNA analysis.

Often people who have diseases, or those who know that a particular genetic disease runs in their family, are the most reluctant to share their genomic information because they know it could potentially be used against them in some way, says Gill Bejerano, associate professor of developmental biology, of pediatrics and of computer science. They are missing out on helping themselves and others by allowing researchers and clinicians to learn from their DNA sequences.

To address such concerns, the Stanford team developed a technique based on a classic cryptographic protocol, known as garbled circuit or Yaos protocol. The individual encrypts their own genome using an algorithm on their smartphone or computer, which translates specific gene variants into a linear set of values that are securely uploaded into the cloud. On the other end of the transaction, the researcher (or any second-party) accesses only the data that is pertinent to their investigation.

In this way, no person or computer, other than the individuals themselves, has access to the complete set of genetic information, says Bejerano.

The team demonstrated the process by executing several practical demonstrations, including identifying specific gene mutations in patients with rare diseases and comparing a babys DNA with his parents to target the likely cause of a genetic disease. In all tested instances, at least 97 percent of each subjects unique DNA information was completely hidden from the researchers.

As well as protecting a persons privacy when having their DNA processed for medical reasons, this technique could theoretically be applied to more commercial contexts, such as ancestry genome studies or even the rising field of nutrigenomics.

There is a general conception that we can only find meaningful differences by surveying the entire genome, says Bejerano. But these meaningful differences make up only a very tiny proportion of our DNA. There are now amazing tools in computer science and cryptography that allow researchers to pinpoint only these differences while keeping the remainder of the genome completely private.

Just recently it was demonstrated that synthetic DNA could be created containing malware that allows a malicious party to gain control of the computer that sequences it. As we learn more and more about what our genetic fingerprint means, the value of that fingerprint will only increase. In the future, the DNA marketplace will be big business and security protocols such as this new Stanford technique are going to be important.

The teams research was published in the journal Science.

Source: Stanford Medicine

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Genome cryptography is the new way to secure your DNA data – Gears Of Biz

Assange blasts ‘absurd’ bid to class WikiLeaks a hostile intelligence service – RT

Published time: 24 Aug, 2017 15:02

WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange slammed efforts to officially class his whistleblowing organization as a non-state hostile intelligence service branding it an attempt to put the Pompeo Doctrine into law.

The Senate Intelligence Committee is proposing a provision in its annual intelligence authorisation bill to declare WikiLeaks as such.

It is the sense of Congress that WikiLeaks and the senior leadership of WikiLeaks resemble a non-state hostile intelligence service often abetted by state actors and should be treated as such a service by the United States, the bill states.

Published Friday, the bill was passed by the committee late last month on a 14-1 vote. Democrat Ron Wyden of Oregon voted against the measure citing the legal, constitutional and policy implications that the WikiLeaks provision may entail.

Assange tweeted a statement describing it as absurd to brand media organizations in such a way.

It is equivalent to suggesting that the CIA is a media organization. Publishers publish what they obtain, Assange said. Intelligence agencies do not.

It is an interesting thought experiment to consider where other media outlets lay on this spectrum. It is clear that if the ‘Pompeo doctrine’ applies to WikiLeaks then it applies equally if not more so to other serious outlets,” he added.

US intelligence agencies have accused Russia of hacking emails from the Democratic National Committee and Hillary Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta and relaying the data to WikiLeaks for publication.

In April, CIA Director Mike Pompeo branded WikiLeaks a “hostile non-state intelligence agency” which should not be afforded the protections of the First Amendment under the constitution.

In March, WikiLeaks began publishing a series of leaks codenamed Vault 7, allegedly from the CIA, revealing the agencys arsenal of hacking tools.

READ MORE: CIAs secret spy tool helps agency steal data from NSA & FBI, WikiLeaks reveals

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Assange blasts ‘absurd’ bid to class WikiLeaks a hostile intelligence service – RT

Russian Deputy PM Says He Supports a State-Backed Cryptocurrency – CoinDesk

A senior Russian official has thrown his support behind a state-backed cryptocurrency.

In an interview with Russian broadcaster RBC, First Deputy Prime Minister Igor Shuvalov said that he is in favor of a “crypto-ruble” provided that certain measures are put in place on the security front.

“This theme will develop,” he said in translated statements. “But it should develop in such a way that the national economy cannot be put under attack, but rather make it stronger.”

Shuvalov isn’t the first Russian official to opine on the subject of a blockchain-based ruble. Indeed, the deputy chief of the Bank of Russia remarked in February that the implementation of a national cryptocurrency was “only a question of time.” Skorobogatova stated that, after extendeddiscussions withinthe centralbank they were finally ready to move forward with initiative.

The Russian government is exploring blockchain on multiple fronts, including work by health officials to test possible methods that utilizethe tech for exchanging patient information. And earlier this summer, President Vladimir Putin briefly met with ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin.

During the RBC interview, Shuvalov confirmed that the government is considering investing in cryptocurrency mining resources, a disclosure that comes after word emerged that an advisor to Russian President Vladimir Putin is putting together a bitcoin mine of his own.

The idea that Russia would potentially fund construction of cryptocurrency mining facilities is in itself notable, given that at one point, lawmakers in the countryonce debated harsh measures including prison terms to deter the creation and spread of so-called “money surrogates”.

Still, movement on this front is in the earliest stages, accordingto Shuvalov.

“But while this is a discussion, there are no concrete projects yet. In order to develop such centers, it is necessary to prepare appropriate legislation and its regulation,” he told the broadcaster.

Image Credit:ID1974/

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Russian Deputy PM Says He Supports a State-Backed Cryptocurrency – CoinDesk